LA DECADENCIA DEL MONASTERIO DE SHAOLIN

SHAOLIN Y SU ANTAGONISMO CON LA IDEOLOGIA DEL KUNGFU

Artículo escrito por el Sifu Tony Rey García

(2012)

Si queremos verdaderamente comprender el sentido del Wushu chino no podemos confundir los propósitos que lo direccionan con las ideologías religiosas que lo asimilaron en diversos contextos.

Lo que pretendo dilucidar es un tema arduo y contradictorio. Ir en contra de los esquemas preestablecidos por el poder de las grandes corporaciones,  es exponerse a la censura de todos aquellos que responden a los intereses del comercio institucionalizado. Como todo lo que se vende debe poseer un foco de atracción para el público, Shaolin se ha convertido en un excelente medio para lucrar y obtener enormes ganancias. Hoy en día las personas creen que solamente con raparse el pelo o vestirse de monjes participan de esta tradición legendaria.

Otros suponen, que tan sólo practicando las estructuras que se venden por doquier, yacen insertados dentro del núcleo de información que enriqueció –en otros tiempos-, la práctica del Wushu. Sin vacilar ni un instante, ni reflexionar en lo que hacen, vacían sus bolsillos y obnubilan sus entendimientos en un esfuerzo por otorgarle un sentido a sus vidas. Por supuesto, la propuesta que reciben es agradable: formar parte de una supuesta cofradía de elegidos y sentirse importante con esta nueva apariencia.

Antiguo salón de entrenamiento del monasterio de Shaolin.

A este respecto, es notable constatar como el monasterio de Shaolin se ha esforzado en propagar una imagen de exotismo oriental, impregnada de poderes mentales e invulnerabilidad física. Esta inteligente propaganda mercantilista, posibilita que la fantasía occidental –apoyada por los filmes de Hollywood-, se amplifique dentro de una ilusa visión de la realidad combativa.

Esta cuestión es muy polémica y nos lleva a un dilema de connotaciones existenciales. En efecto, si aceptamos todas las sugestiones que los medios de comunicación nos imponen, nos será imposible evitar la trivialidad y el desasosiego espiritual  que genera una errada elección.

He aquí, pues, que me veo forzado a conjeturar una interrogante de magnitudes profundas:

¿Qué implica realmente el término de Shaolin?

Cuando abordamos esta pregunta con la veracidad del conocimiento histórico –lo cual nos exime de aceptar la versión  oficial que se ofrece dentro y fuera de China-, no podemos eludir las contradicciones.

Shaolin es el nombre de un monasterio budista, no el de un cuartel militar. Este es el punto que da inicio a su existencia en el siglo IV cuando el emperador Xiao Wen Di (孝文帝) de la dinastía Wei del Norte ordena su construcción en el condado de Deng Feng Xian (登封縣), provincia de Henan, al norte del monte Shao Shi (少室), para un monje indio llamado Ba Duo (跋陀).

Debemos aclarar, que el budismo es una expresión de la filosofía India. Los conceptos devenidos del Mahayana no poseen convergencia con los fundamentos genuinos del pensamiento chino. El mismo taoísmo religioso degeneró en su búsqueda de la inmortalidad y en su asimilación de las concepciones budistas.

Por supuesto, ambas corrientes se ensimismaron en diversas épocas por obtener los favores de la clase gobernante, lo cual les proporcionaba la seguridad de un dogma de carácter gubernamental.

Ahora bien, no debemos olvidar que el Wushu es un elemento reinante desde la más remota antigüedad. Por lo tanto, Shaolin no existía cuando en los reinos combatientes las artes marciales proliferaban. Insignes guerreros y estrategas militares imprimen durante miles de años un enorme ímpetu al desarrollo bélico. Los estilos clásicos se construyen en los ambientes familiares y los códigos tácticos se fundamentan dentro del linaje de la clase pudiente y de los grandes movimientos étnicos. Los mismos sistemas que fundamentarían la práctica marcial de Shaolin adoptan los nombres de los métodos gestados en el norte. O sea, los monjes estaban estudiando y entrenando estructuras conocidas dentro del núcleo de las sociedades secretas.

Así, pues, podemos asegurar que el Wushu es un legado del pensamiento chino, el cual fue desarrollado dentro de los clanes familiares. Incluso, cuando en diversos períodos el monasterio de Shaolin se ve forzado a introducir elementos de combate, todo lo que recibe es tomado del exterior o asimilado por medio del conocimiento de sus prosélitos.

Se conoce que muchos pretendientes a sacerdotes budistas llegaban a las puertas del claustro con informaciones marciales. En tanto, generales y maestros de renombre apoyaron con sus aportes el desarrollo de los conceptos de ataque y defensa. Esto trajo como consecuencia, que muchos monjes evacuaran los muros del recinto para buscar contacto con grandes especialistas del mundo laico.

Bosque de las pagodas en el monasterio de Shaolin.

Como ya hemos visto, Shaolin no es el nombre de una escuela de Wushu, sino de un templo de contemplación y desarrollo espiritual. Los monjes asimilaron muchos de los estilos del norte y lo estandarizaron dentro de sus prácticas psicofísicas. Primeramente como un intento de fortalecer la salud de sus adeptos y más tarde, como vía de preservar al monasterio contra la incursión de los bandidos. No obstante, con el advenimiento de las diversas dinastías y el conflicto de apoyo y rechazo de la clase gobernante, el budismo se inserta dentro de un ciclo de conspiración política y desarrollo militar. Los monjes se convierten en una especie de guerreros religiosos capaces de intervenir en los acontecimientos del estado.

Aquí se evidencia la desvitalización de una visión pacifista. ¿Cómo es posible aceptar que la ideología de no violencia pueda involucrarse en un entrenamiento capaz de exterminar la vida de sus semejantes? ¿Acaso esto es un nuevo modelo de budismo?

Debemos recordar, que desde que Siddhartha Gautama (siglos VI-V a.C.)  proclama las ocho nobles verdades, el budismo evoluciona en varias corrientes y se estructura sobre la base de cinco mandamientos:

  • Bu Sha (不殺 – No causar males a los demás)
  • Bu Wang Yu (不妄语 – No mentir)
  • Bu Tou Dao (不偷盗 – No robar)
  • Bu Xie Yin (不邪淫 – No relaciones carnales)
  • Bu Yin Jiu Lei (不饮酒類 – No consumo de bebidas alcohólicas)

Entonces, ¿cómo puede acoplarse un camino religioso que aboga por el respeto a todo lo existente dentro de un enconado entrenamiento marcial?

Es necesario que enfaticemos que el Wushu es un arte de combate y el Fojiao (budismo, 佛教)  un camino de cultivo espiritual y no resistencia a la agresión física.

Un verdadero budista no puede atentar contra la vida que lo circunda, ni tan siquiera para matar al insecto que se afana en extraer sangre de su piel. ¿De qué manera puede entonces justificarse una práctica de carácter  militar?

Indudablemente, el budismo –introducido en el monasterio de Shaolin-, degenera como camino religioso acoplándose a una visión guerrera.

El otro punto que debemos tomar en cuenta, es que la ideología del Wushu se enraíza en el Yijing (易經 – Libro de las Mutaciones) y en los textos del taoísmo filosófico. Wushu es una expresión del pensamiento nacional y no una adaptación de la visión importada desde la India.

Es indudable que Shaolin tuvo –dentro de sus prácticas marciales- su punto de desarrollo y de decadencia. Tras el incendio de 1928 y la Revolución Cultural pierde su legado escrito y sus transmisiones directas. Los monjes son perseguidos, los claustros cerrados y veinte millones de personas fallecen entre las ruinas de un país devastado por los conflictos ideológicos.

Con el paso del comunismo y el advenimiento de la política de apertura y reforma, Shaolin intenta rescatar lo poco que quedaba. No obstante, la exigua minoría de sobrevivientes no pudo recuperar las pérdidas en el que se vio envuelto este conocimiento milenario. Fue esta penosa situación la que lo instó a crear un nuevo modelo de combate basado en elementos de fortalecimiento físico, técnicas acrobáticas y una inteligente fusión con gestualidades artísticas. Este conjunto de movimientos, fue fusionado con la promesa de alcanzar la invulnerabilidad física y el aura de misterio que tanto enaltece a la mentalidad moderna.

Reconstrucción moderna efectuada en algunos pabellones del monasterio budista.

Lo curioso de toda esta epopeya marcial, es presenciar como el público inexperto acepta sin conjeturas la propuesta que se le oferta como genuina. Es absurdo presenciar a un supuesto monje budista enseñando un arte de combate en un entorno de ganancias económicas. Es antagónico representar el papel de un avatar religioso mientras se induce a un número de seguidores a que muestren los supuestos poderes que han obtenido.

El budismo es un camino de renunciamiento material y de entrega espiritual, de no violencia y pacificación interna. Entonces, ¿dónde está el desapego cuando lo que prima es el enriquecimiento personal? ¿Dónde yace la entrega cuando el esfuerzo se dirige en impresionar la mente del mundo laico? ¿En qué parte se vislumbra la renuncia a lo material en cursos y exhibiciones que se ofertan con precio fijo? ¿No es acaso un acto de violencia transmitir un arte de ataque y defensa? ¿Cómo puede justificarse –desde el punto de vista religioso- este propósito de vida?

Quien verdaderamente busca la espiritualidad no la pregona y menos la vende. Buda no planteó las bases de un arte marcial. Por lo tanto, el budismo no se cumple ni se direcciona cuando se violan sus reglas.

Si decimos –como suele enfatizarse en los círculos oficiales de referencia-, que todo el Wushu bajo el cielo procede de Shaolin (天下武术出少林), no estamos comprendiendo que es lo que significa el término de Wu (武), ni tampoco de donde emerge el arte marcial chino.

En todo caso Shaolin fue –dentro de la historia de las artes marciales- un punto de contacto con el Wushu y no un centro generador del mismo. El budismo no es un planteamiento autóctono del pensamiento tradicional. Por lo tanto, no se puede comprender el Wushu (oriundo de China) desde la perspectiva que ofrece.

Wu (武) como término, implica responder a un acto de agresión. Wu es marcialidad, guerra, y confiere entre sus trazos la acción de reaccionar mediante el ataque o la defensa a una tentativa generada por un oponente. Mientras que Fu (佛), es el ideograma que define al budismo como religión y como sendero espiritual. Dentro de Fu no puede existir el acto de aniquilar a un ser vivo.

Cuando aludimos al concepto de Wushu nos remontamos a una compleja teoría que expresa el movimiento de Yin y Yang. Este cuerpo filosófico fue extraído del Yijing (Libro de las Mutaciones) y llevado a las distintas vertientes de las artes marciales.

Las diversas escuelas de Wushu diseminadas por toda la geografía del continente asiático,  yacen unificadas bajo un solo substrato ideológico. La divergencia que pueda existir entre los estilos, es sólo una muestra de desconocimiento y parcialización mental. Allí, donde existe dogmatismo, no habita la libertad de comprensión.

De esta manera, creo verdaderamente que Shaolin debe reestructurar su modo de proyectarse al mundo. O asume ser una institución de lucro a través de un show circense, o solidifica su postura religiosa sobre la base del respeto hacia la doctrina que pregona.

83 Responses to “LA DECADENCIA DEL MONASTERIO DE SHAOLIN”

  1. Ernesto Valera Ramírez Says:

    Sin dudas el Maestro Tony nos da una lección filosófica e histórica en este artículo. Nos ha permitido conocer la verdadera relación que existe entre las artes marciales y la corriente religiosa del Budismo, en específico del Mahayana (Gran Vehículo). El monasterio de Shaolin surge con el objetivo de propagar una corriente religiosa que en esa época se encontraba en su mayor auge en Asia. Irónicamente, esta corriente, creada en la India por Siddhartha Gautama, se encontraba en una etapa de decadencia en su propio país de origen, más o menos por esta época. A medida que los monjes realizaban largos viajes hacia los países asiáticos fueron llevando esta religión hacia los confines de Asia, cobrando mucha fuerza en China con el apoyo de los emperadores que deseaban alcanzar el Nirvana con sus buenas acciones.
    Resulta contradictorio que una religión basada en la no violencia cultivara un arte de guerra para destruir a sus semejantes. Esto contradice los principios del Budismo. El Maestro Tony nos menciona los cinco mandamientos que prevalecen en la filosofía budista y precisamente el primero se basa en la no violencia a sus semejantes. En lo personal, cuando leía desde joven sobre la historia de la India donde se mencionaba las características del budismo, siempre observé que se trataba ante todo de un monasterio para la meditación hacia el camino de la iluminación. El hombre transitaba por diferentes estadios de existencia donde se despojaba de todo lo mundano hasta alcanzar el nirvana, un nivel donde se llegaba a una total iluminación (Budda) eran unos cuantos niveles que, por cierto, están bien representados en los templos hindúes, sobre todo el de Borobudur en Indonesia.
    Realmente este artículo es un tema polémico. El cine de Occidente (y de la propia China) entre otros materiales, nos han transmitido una imagen, como nos dice Tony, de “exotismo oriental” siendo muy preciso este término en mi opinión. La propaganda de Occidente tiende siempre a exaltar elementos superfluos y subjetivos, matizados de la imagen de un héroe (o héroes) que salvan dificultades sin ningún esfuerzo, gracias a una compleja preparación en el famoso monasterio o basado en un arte marcial supuestamente salido de este templo.
    Es interesante como el Maestro Tony nos aclara y cito: “Los conceptos devenidos del Mahayana no poseen convergencia con los fundamentos genuinos del pensamiento chino” y nos recuerda también que estamos hablando de un monasterio, no de un cuartel. Cuando el Budismo llega a China, hacía siglos existía la corriente filosófica del Taoísmo. Figuras como Lao Tze llegan a ser los principales representantes de esta corriente la cual poseía, en su concepto fundamental, la idea de la inmortalidad y el fluir con las leyes naturales a través de un camino (Tao) que se emprende para alcanzar un estado supremo con lo natural, respetando todo el proceso cíclico de ésta. A la llegada del Budismo se crea una identificación entre éste y el Taoísmo, lográndose a través de tiempo, una fusión de elementos de uno y otro.
    Hay que recordar que el término “marcial” se refiere a los elementos militares de la guerra. Cuando Boddhidarma llega a Shaolin tan solo lo hace como monje que viene a continuar desarrollando la corriente filosófica hindú que él mismo practicaba. Solo al observar las condiciones en que se encontraban los prosélitos les planteó un sistema de ejercicios para soportar este pesado estado meditativo. En lo personal desconozco que les enseñara algún arte marcial. Tan solo al nivel del Qigong. Menciono esto porque existe el falso concepto que Boddhidarma llega a Shaolin a enseñar las artes marciales que se conocen en este monasterio. Nada más lejos de la verdad. Es bueno, por lo tanto, que el artículo nos plantee que muchos monjes tomaron muchos de los boxeos de los clanes y familias que tradicionalmente cultivaban las artes marciales. Recuerdo haber leído una vez que la razón principal de los monjes de Shaolin para practicar artes marciales era por los peligros que se enfrentaban con la existencias de grupos de bandoleros que asaltaban los caminos y posiblemente hasta al mismo monasterio. De todos modos sigue contradiciendo los principios que generan esta religión como se ha podido ver.
    Pienso que este tipo de material sirve para otros artículos que permitan aclarar la visión que se tiene de Shaolin y de las artes marciales. El enfoque que nos ofrece el Maestro Tony resulta elocuente acerca de las bases que generaron el cultivo del Wushu en un monasterio budista. Agradezco al Maestro Tony por este interesante artículo.

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