El CAMINO DE LA ÉTICA EN EL WUSHU TRADICIONAL

El CAMINO DE LA ÉTICA EN EL WUSHU TRADICIONAL

Artículo escrito por el Sifu Tony Rey García

(2012)

En la vida de la China medieval las artes marciales eran consideradas una manifestación del Dao (道). Al igual que la pintura, la caligrafía, la música, la poesía o el arreglo floral, el Wushu constituyó un medio para aplicar las energías físicas, psíquicas y espirituales del hombre, en un incesante proceso de auto-conocimiento.

Para hacer efectivo el crecimiento interior se crearon, desde la antigüedad, reglas éticas que canalizaban las energías físicas y mentales en un comportamiento veraz. Esa era la clave del desarrollo: una impecable fidelidad con los principios que rigen el camino que se ha elegido.

Xiu Yang Dao De (修养道德) es el término utilizado por los maestros para designar el cultivo de las condiciones morales en el Wu Dao (武道 – Camino del Guerrero). Cada escuela cuenta con sus propios códigos. Pero la concordancia de lo que se entiende como formación del carácter esta inscrita en nueve principios:

  • Zhong Cheng (忠誠 – Lealtad)
  • Ren Qing (人情 – Humanidad)
  • Zheng Yi (正義 – Rectitud)
  • Qian Xu (謙虛 – Humildad)
  • Zun Jing (尊敬 – Respeto)
  • Xin Xin (信心 – Convicción)
  • Yi Zhi (意志 – Voluntad)
  • Heng Xin (恒心 – Perseverancia)
  • Yong Gan (勇敢 – Valentía)

La moral en el Wushu tradicional ha sido siempre un factor determinante. El entrenamiento se contempla como un punto de inserción entre la conciencia y el cuerpo. Un hombre sin ética no puede avanzar en el camino. No tiene espíritu verdadero. Es como un huevo vacío. Su forma exterior puede ser perfecta, pero la carencia de sustancia es un sello tallado en su destino.

Cuando las bajas pasiones imperan en la conducta, la intención no es clara. Sin claridad el Qi no se moviliza. Si el Qi no se moviliza no hay transformación. Esta es la triste condición de los que intentan abordar el Wushu sin alma: una parálisis evolutiva.

En los inicios, los bonzos del monasterio de Shaolin asimilaron cinco preceptos del budismo Mahâyâna:

  • Bu Sha (不殺 – No causar males a los demás)
  • Bu Wang Yu (不妄语 – No mentir)
  • Bu Tou Dao (不偷盗 – No robar)
  • Bu Xie Yin (不邪淫 – No relaciones carnales)
  • Bu Yin Jiu Lei (不饮酒類 – No consumo de bebidas alcohólicas)

Más tarde, en el siglo XVI, fueron ampliados en diez mandamientos, que sirvieron como código moral para regir el adiestramiento del Wushu genuino.

Como es de nuestro interés comprender los mandamientos que mejor ofrecen vigencia a los preceptos del pensamiento chino, nos reduciremos a comentar solamente ocho de los diez que sustentaban la tradición antigua.

El primer precepto dice:

Quien aprende Wushu debe entrenarse con celo y tenacidad.

El Wushu se divide en semillas, flores y frutos. Las semillas son los movimientos básicos, los trabajos destinados a fortalecer el cuerpo, cultivar la energía y crear una raíz. Las flores son los encadenamientos de movimientos. Los frutos, las aplicaciones marciales de cada técnica aprendida.

La fase de la semilla debe dominarse al menos en un 95%. El Wushu tradicional rechaza la superficialidad. Si se aprende mal se pierde el tiempo y se perjudica la salud. Es importante conocer los tres componentes, pero nunca se debe precipitar el proceso. La intensidad no garantiza la eficacia del resultado.

Cuando se comienza el entrenamiento se debe obtener primero el estado espiritual, que permite el cultivo de la esencia y de la energía. Un axioma antiguo dice: “La energía sin las leyes naturales no se transforma, las leyes naturales sin la energía no se sostienen.” Esto quiere decir que en el Wushu no es suficiente saber cuáles son los mecanismos para incrementar la energía, sino que es necesario conocer las leyes que gobiernan el mundo que nos rodea.

La llave de la sabiduría se llama voluntad. Ese es el secreto para los que se inician en el auto-perfeccionamiento.

El segundo precepto dice:

El empleo del Wushu se permite exclusivamente con fines de autodefensa.

El Wushu es el arte de vencerse a sí mismo. Un buen practicante se domina y no se convierte en víctima de las circunstancias.

Lo primero que hay que comprender son las causas de la violencia. El hombre que es esclavo de sus emociones es un ser humano agobiado por la torpeza de un temple mal dirigido.

La actitud es más importante que la técnica porque nos prepara para responder sin miedos ni remordimientos. El capítulo Mou Gong Pian (谋攻篇 – La Estrategia de la Ofensiva), del Sunzi Binfa (孙子兵法 – El Arte de la Guerra), sentencia:”Conoce al enemigo y conócete a ti mismo y podrás ganar cientos de batallas.”

Cuando la mentalidad es abierta y receptiva, el Qi se mueve sin rupturas. En esta circulación de energía se transmuta la personalidad. Los hábitos se modifican y se adquiere una comprensión de los cambios que rodean la existencia. La moderación, la flexibilidad y la constante observación, confieren la facilidad para amoldarse a los propósitos de un adversario. El arte de la defensa contiene el ataque. Un peleador sabe cómo anular una agresión sin tener que excederse en la letalidad de su técnica.

El tercer precepto dice:

Quien lo ha aprendido debe ser respetuoso y modesto en el trato con el preceptor y los compañeros mayores.

Utilizar el poder conquistado en el entrenamiento para humillar, menospreciar, y maltratar a los semejantes es una señal de la ausencia de un lazo profundo con el conocimiento. La torpeza para dominar el lado oscuro es una marca eterna de la debilidad y la carencia de autodominio.

Cuando se entrena Wushu se abren los canales energéticos; si ese potencial no se canaliza con un comportamiento ético, se convierte en el peor de los venenos. Por esta razón, antiguamente se esperaba durante años para transmitir los secretos del arte, no solamente por el temor a ser utilizado por manos indecentes, sino por el daño intenso que podían ejercer en la falsa manipulación de un carácter inadecuado. Una vez que el hombre decide lanzarse al torrente furioso de las aguas del autoconocimiento, no hay tiempo para imaginar que se puede desviar el río y utilizar el agua para inundar el bosque. La catarata lo tragará entre la espuma y la frialdad de lo ignoto.

El cuarto precepto dice:

Quien lo está aprendiendo debe ser siempre cortés y honesto; benevolente en las relaciones con los compañeros.

Enseñar es sólo indicar el camino. Es necesario tener una buena guía, pero la perseverancia por limpiar el alma es responsabilidad individual. Nadie puede dar los pasos utilizando los pies de otros. No hay un sendero para atravesar el esfuerzo. La vida es acción, movimiento, no existe posibilidad alguna de evadir el camino.

En una escuela de Wushu tradicional, los alumnos son hermanos. El entrenamiento une al maestro con los discípulos como una gran familia. En estos lazos de energía no hay espacio para interponer divisiones. Una familia es un núcleo de armonía. La práctica colectiva y el intercambio de amor y amistad, conducen a la cumbre de la realización humana.

El quinto precepto dice:

Quien aprende Wushu tiene el deber de contener el deseo de mostrar sus conocimientos a la gente, debe eludir cualquier desafío.

El Wushu no sirve para ocultar los complejos de inferioridad y las manías de grandeza. La preparación para la vida no admite la arrogancia, lo que cuenta es el tiempo que vamos a estar vivos y desde esta perspectiva no hay arsenal para invertir en tonterías. La modestia es una virtud que nace donde sobran los argumentos.

Ceder fácilmente a la provocación es el estigma de una mente primitiva. Dice un viejo adagio: “El mejor guerrero gana sin lanzar un golpe”. El Wushu es un arte de sutilezas. No hay prodigio mayor que empapar la ira y el orgullo ajeno con la paz del espíritu. Hay que aprender a comprender la debilidad ajena. El combate mayor que puede realizarse debe estar dirigido contra los propios impulsos. Un combatiente audaz debe ser como un niño inofensivo.

El sexto precepto dice:

Quien aprende Wushu no debe en caso alguno ser el primero en iniciar una pelea.

Si ceder a la provocación y al desafío es síntoma de debilidad, peor es la agresión intencional lanzada con la furia que la impotencia y la ira ejerce. ¿De qué sirvieron todos los años de esfuerzo, de dolor y de angustia por conquistarnos, si una simple querella nos arrastra al desorden?

Hay una historia que cuenta como tres hombres deseosos de aprender Wushu se presentaron en un monasterio budista. Acogidos por el monje principal expusieron su deseo de ser aceptados como discípulos. Este los miró detenidamente y les dijo:

-Si quieren ingresar en la orden antes deben pasar por una pequeña prueba -alzando la mirada, señaló por encima de sus cabezas, indicándoles que subiesen al tejado y se lanzasen en señal de fidelidad.

Inmediatamente los tres hombres subieron al tejado. El primero, fogoso como un caballo salvaje, se arrojó sin pensarlo. El segundo, diestro como un felino, caminó lentamente hasta el borde saltando con ligereza. El tercero, tembloroso como una liebre, se acercó indeciso y tras un breve instante, descendió por donde mismo había subido con el rostro turbado por el miedo.

El monje se acercó a los dos primeros y les dijo:

-Váyanse, la prueba ha terminado.

Todos se quedaron confundidos y los dos primeros pretendientes exigieron una explicación. Ellos habían cumplido la propuesta sin dudar.

El monje los escuchó sonriente mientras les decía:

-Si por aprender Wushu no le temen a la muerte, ¡qué no serían capaces de hacer una vez que hayan aprendido!

El Wushu es un tesoro para los que no tienen nada ni esperan nada. Para los que se entregan en cuerpo y alma a la misión de ayudar a los pobres. Un hombre bueno no depara sacrificios en favor de la justicia y el beneficio de sus semejantes. En las situaciones penosas y dolorosas, en la carencia total o en las penurias de la vida será el primero en dar su mano para sostener la necesidad. En el peligro no titubeará frente a los riesgos. Un artista marcial no se mide por la perfección de sus técnicas sino por la calidad de sus sentimientos.

El séptimo precepto dice:

No debe precipitarse a enseñar Wushu a desconocidos. Sólo se debe enseñar a personas dignas, de buen corazón y sinceramente gratas.

En la antigüedad no era fácil arrancar los secretos de un estilo; las pruebas eran largas, duras y severas. Un maestro tardaba años en convencerse de la fidelidad de un discípulo y aún así no siempre estaba dispuesto a ceder toda la información. En las sociedades secretas y en los sistemas clánicos se cuidaba que las técnicas no fueran divulgadas al exterior. Los códigos morales eran tan severos con respecto a la traición, que el castigo podía llegar hasta la muerte de la segunda generación.

El Wushu tradicional estaba encaminado a formar, no a informar. Este objetivo implicaba un conocimiento de los intereses del discípulo y de sus verdaderas cualidades internas. Descubrir la naturaleza real de una persona no era tarea de unos minutos de conversación. Había que probar los valores y para esto se necesitaban años de interacción.

La vida moderna impone la velocidad de los sucesos. No obstante, es imposible construir un edificio en tres días. Crear es una cosa y dar la ilusión de haber hecho algo es otra. Si no se cuenta con una aptitud sincera, cualquier ayuda será insuficiente.

El octavo precepto dice:

Quien aprende Wushu debe eludir por todos los medios la cólera, la avidez y la fanfarronería.

La medicina tradicional china reconoce seis estados emocionales que están estrechamente relacionados con los órganos y las vísceras:

  • Xi (喜 – alegría)
  • Bei (悲 – tristeza)
  • You (忧 – ansiedad)
  • Nu (怒 – cólera)
  • Kong (恐 – miedo)
  • Si (思 – preocupación)

Las emociones humanas, cuando no están en armonía, son una fuente de desórdenes que afectan al hombre. El hígado es el filtro de la sangre y junto al corazón regula el flujo de la energía en el cuerpo. La ira daña las funciones del hígado, produciendo dolores en los tendones y una movilización de Qi negativo en los meridianos. Ese flujo de Qi puede perturbar el equilibrio del organismo, afectar el estómago y desequilibrar la estabilidad espiritual. Hay una unidad energética directamente relacionada con el cuerpo y la actividad mental. Los órganos y las vísceras son los conductos por donde transitan las energías de los alimentos y de la respiración. Si no hay un estado de control emocional en el entrenamiento del Wushu, los cuadros patológicos se manifestarán en la misma proporción. Las leyes de la vida son intransigentes. El hombre no puede evitar los efectos de una inadecuada postura interna.

La avidez es el segundo aspecto de este precepto, esta pasión por obtener es hija del egoísmo. La persona que se excluye de todo lo que la rodea, sólo piensa en términos de provecho personal. El hombre mezquino es un ciego que viaja por el mundo con la triste misión de tener que satisfacer su propia demanda; a menudo sus exigencias crecen tanto que cae en la apatía y la depresión, porque el medio circundante no satisface la magnitud de su pedido.

La fanfarronería es una expresión de inseguridad. Mientras mejor hable una persona de todos sus talentos, más alejada se encuentra de entender lo que significa la realización personal. En el Dao De Jing se dice: Xin Yan Bu Mei (信言不美 – Las palabras auténticas no son hermosas). Los que dominan un arte no están atormentados en saber si los demás lo reconocen. Viven su felicidad agarrados al “hoy” y sonríen a las críticas del mundo con un placer inigualable.

Por este motivo, una vez que se comienza la práctica del Wushu se debe obtener la actitud mental que permita cultivar la esencia. El hombre que está preocupado por satisfacer sus intereses de manera egoísta llega al vicio, a la corrupción o a los repentinos actos de violencia. Sus propósitos personales no le permiten alcanzar la paz del verdadero entrenamiento. Cuando el Yinian (intención mental) no es correcto, el Qi se estanca o se dispersa. Cuando la circulación del Qi se deteriora, la comprensión degenera. Sin comprensión, el arte marcial se diluye en un conjunto de movilidades físicas. Entonces, no existe posibilidad alguna de alcanzar la comunión con el espíritu.

El Wushu tradicional es un camino de autoconocimiento y control de sí mismo. Por lo tanto, solo aquellos que hayan limpiado su imagen de atributos indeseables pueden comprender como maniobrar con los resortes de la conciencia.

Si no se cultiva la ética del arte marcial, no se producirán cambios trascendentes. De nada vale el sudor de cien años, si en unos segundos no podemos controlar nuestro flujo de emociones.  La maestría tiene fases y niveles, pero en su grado más puro es simplemente una expresión de impecabilidad espiritual.

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