FUNDAMENTOS DEL BOXEO DEL TIGRE Y LA GRULLA

FUNDAMENTOS DEL BOXEO DEL TIGRE Y LA GRULLA

Artículo escrito por el Sifu Tony Rey García

(2012)

El boxeo del tigre y la grulla (Hu He Shuang Xing Quan, 虎鶴雙形拳) es una de las formas más relevantes del estilo Hong Jia Quan (boxeo de la familia Hong conocido en Occidente como Hong Gar por su fonética cantonesa, 洪家拳). Por consiguiente, su  historia y evolución le confieren la perennidad de las grandes creaciones. Incluso -dentro del contexto de las artes marciales-, las raíces que cobijaron su contenido determinaron el surgimiento de innumerables vertientes. Razón por la cual,  muchos maestros se refieren a este sistema con el apelativo de Hu He Pai (corriente del tigre y la grulla, 虎鶴派).

Muchas leyendas se tejen alrededor de la creación de esta secuencia. Algunos aseguran que fue gestada por Hong Xi Guan (legendario maestro sobreviviente de la época de las conjuras contra el gobierno manchú, 洪熙官), quien combinó las técnicas de tigre aprendidas en el templo de Fujian Jiu Lian Shan (monasterio de Shaolin de los nueve lotos, 福建九莲山), con el boxeo de la grulla desarrollado por su esposa.

Otros afirman que el boxeo fue creado por Hong Wen Ting  (descendiente del maestro Hong Xi Guan, 洪文定), quien supo aunar las estrategias recibidas de sus progenitores. Mientras, que un tercer grupo sostiene la teoría de que el sistema fue elaborado por el maestro Wong Fei Hong, como resultado de la combinación del boxeo de tigre (Hu Quan, 虎拳), el boxeo de la grulla blanca (Bai He Quan, 白鶴拳), las técnicas del puente de manos (Qiao Shou Quan, 橋手拳), así como algunos aspectos del Luo Han (Luo Han Quan, 羅漢拳). Conocimiento recibido de su padre  -el maestro Huang Qi Ying-,  quien fue uno de los diez tigres de la provincia de Guangdong.

Sifu Wong Fei Hung (1847-1924, 黃飛鴻)

El maestro Wong Fei Hong no solo fusionaría estos elementos, sino que incorporaría el método de fortalecimiento del cable de hierro devenido de Lin Fu Cheng (林福成), un fiel discípulo del maestro Tie Qiao San (otro de los diez tigres del sur, 铁桥三).

Ahora bien, independientemente de donde provenga su origen y evolución, el boxeo del tigre y la grulla es una exquisita combinación de los estilos más sobresalientes de la época. Contiene técnicas de penetración a corta distancia, movimientos de boxeo largo, desgarramientos, evasión con saltos de grulla, picotazos y estrategias de intercepción. Refuerza el trabajo de Qi Gong marcial y condensa los métodos del monasterio de Shaolin en una secuencia de características singulares, combinando la dureza, la plasticidad y la fiereza del tigre con la sutilidad, la velocidad y la suavidad de la grulla. Es además, un boxeo que armoniza las técnicas duras y blandas.

Sifu Huang Cong Rong (黄聪荣), realizando una técnica del boxeo Ba Gua Hong Quan (boxeo de las ocho direcciones de la familia Hong, 八卦洪拳).

Algunos maestros enseñan que este boxeo ejercita las diez técnicas más famosas del Hong Quan (Hong Gar), las cuales fueron denominadas bajo el epíteto de Shi Jue Shou (las diez manos que aniquilan, 十绝手):

  • Romper el tablero con las manos (Po Pai Shou, 破牌手).
  • El método de enganchar con los puños dobles (Shuang Gua Chui Fa, 雙掛槌法).
  • Golpear con el puño que se conecta con el cielo (Tong Tian Quan Shi, 通天拳勢).
  • El tigre hambriento ataca a la oveja (E Hu Qin Yang, 鋨虎擒羊).
  • El tigre furioso desciende de la montaña (Meng Hu Xia Shan, 猛虎下山).
  • Tomar al caballo por la brida y retornarlo al pesebre (Dai Ma Gui Cao, 帶馬歸槽).
  • La grulla retorna con el tesoro del espíritu (Huan Hun Bao He, 還魂寶鶴).
  • El mono se roba el melocotón (Hou Zi Tou Tiao, 猴子偷挑).
  • Dos mariposas agitan sus alas (Shuang Fei Yue Die, 雙飛躍蝶).
  • Golpear con los puños del tigre y el leopardo (Hu Bao Shuang Quan, 虎豹雙拳).

El Hong Jia Quan (Hong Gar) es considerado por muchos maestros como una condensación de las técnicas del tigre. Por esta causa, el boxeo se erige como un pilar de altos quilates dentro del sistema Hong. Así, podemos observar como las técnicas de garras agrupan -con cambios de altura y ataques en ángulos-, los diez movimientos clásicos del tigre:

  • Los dos tigres ocultan su huella (Er Hu Cang Zong, 二虎藏蹤).
  • El tigre furioso se agazapa sobre la tierra (Meng Hu Fu Yu, 猛虎負嵎).
  • El tigre desciende para agarrar la perla (Fu Hu Lian Zhu, 伏虎連珠).
  • Golpear con los puños dobles que descienden (Gua Chui Shuang Luo, 掛槌雙落).
  • El tigre hambriento ataca a la oveja (E Hu Qin Yang, 鋨虎擒羊).
  • El tigre solitario sale de la cueva (Dan Hu Chu Dong, 單虎出洞).
  • El tigre furioso desciende de la montaña (Meng Hu Xia Shan, 猛虎下山).
  • El tigre pisotea a los lobos y los chacales (Hu Ping Chai Lang, 虎憑豺狼).
  • El tigre furioso empuja la montaña (Meng Hu Tui Shan, 猛虎推山).
  • El tigre furioso se arrastra sobre la arena (Meng Hu Pa Sha, 猛虎爬沙).

Las acciones del tigre son ejecutadas con el uso adecuado de la respiración y la intención para que el Qi se canalice a través de las extremidades del cuerpo.

En tanto, los nueve puños de la grulla se entrelazan con cinco métodos de manos:

  • Garra de grulla (He Zhua, 鶴抓).
  • Pico de grulla (He Zui, 鶴嘴).
  • Ala de grulla (He Chi, 鶴翅).
  • Cabeza de grulla (He Ding, 鶴頂).
  • Pescuezo de grulla (He Gou, 鶴句).

Este boxeo de tendencia Wai Jia (método de entrenamiento donde se enfatiza el trabajo muscular, 外家), tiene muchas versiones sureñas. La estructura contenida en la escuela del maestro Wong Yi Man está compuesta de dos secuencias fundamentales:

  • Boxeo simplificado de tigre y grulla (Xin Hu He Shuang Xin Quan, 新虎鹤雙形拳).
  • Boxeo antiguo de tigre y grulla (Lao Hu He Shuang Xin Quan, 老虎鶴雙形拳).

La primera serie de 81 movimientos es una forma abreviada de la estructura antigua que consta de 130 pasos. El Hu He Shuang Xing Quan es un método excelente para el fortalecimiento físico y para el desarrollo del Qi Gong. Por estar confeccionado con una mixtura de boxeos tradicionales su estudio involucra al practicante con diferentes dimensiones de lucha, como son los puños largos del Luo Han Quan:

  • El niño reverencia a Buda (Tong Zi Bai Fo, 童子拜佛).
  • Los guardianes de Buda abandonan la cueva (Jin Gang Chu Dong, 金剛出洞).
  • El Luohan expone el cadáver al sol (Luo Han Sha Shi, 羅漢晒尸).
  • El Luohan sale de la cueva (Luo Han Chu Dong, 羅漢出洞).
  • El puño de los ocho inmortales borrachos (Zui Jiu Ba Xian, 醉酒八仙).
  • Golpear la primera estrella de la Osa mayor con el puño (Pao Yi Xing Pao Chui, 一星拋捶).
  • Golpear la segunda estrella de la Osa mayor con el puño Pao (Er Xing Pao Chui, 二星拋捶).
  • Azotar con los puños encadenados (Lian Huan Zhao Ze, 連鐶召責).
  • Bloquear y golpear con los puños encadenados (Lian Huan Kou Zhuang,  連鐶扣撞).

Y los diez métodos del puente de hierro:

  • Señalar con el dedo la llanura central (Zhi Ding Zhong Yuan, 指定中原).
  • La postura sólida del puente de oro (Jin Qiao Xiang Ding, 金橋相定).
  • Bloquear y golpear con el puente flexible (Yun Rou Qiao, 運柔橋).
  • Cortar el puente con las dos espadas (Shuang Jian Qie Qiao, 雙劍切橋).
  • Bloquear con el puente de perla en la postura del gran meridiano (Zi Wu Zhu Qiao, 子午珠橋).
  • Hundir el puente y perforar con la palma (Chen Qiao Chuan Zhang, 沉橋穿掌).
  • Montar a caballo con el puente simple (Zuo Ma Dan Qiao, 坐馬單橋).
  • Hundir la cintura bloqueando con el brazo (Bang Shou Chen Yao, 膀手沉腰).
  • Despertar la duda con un dedo (Zhi Shou Wen Ti, 指手問題).
  • Perforar con el puente y retornar a la cueva (Chuan Qiao Gui Dong, 穿橋歸洞).

El Hong Quan se ramificó en muchas vertientes en las provincias del sur de China. Muchos de estos núcleos familiares enriquecieron diversas estructuras, incluso dentro del contexto de las sociedades secretas. Debemos recordar que la secta Hong Bang (hermandad establecida por todos aquellos que poseen el apellido Hong, 洪幫), es una extensión de la sociedad del Cielo y de la Tierra (Tian Di Hui, 天地会), instaurada en un tiempo de conjura contra la dinastía manchú. Estos focos de rebelión fueron a su vez, derivaciones de algunas agrupaciones secretas de reconocida participación histórica, como es el caso de la sociedad del Loto Blanco (Bai Lian Hui, 白莲教).

Sifu Huang Tian Wu (黄天武), hijo mayor del maestro Wong Yi Man y actual Director General de la Academia Nan Pai Kungfu del distrito de Taishan.

Es esta la causa, de que muchas escuelas de Hong Quan contengan diversas interpretaciones de las formas clásicas, gestadas en localidades y contextos históricos específicos. Algunos les rinden preponderancia a las técnicas heredadas de la mano de Hong Xi Guan, mientras que otros le confieren trascendencia a los arreglos personales que introdujo el maestro Wong Fei Hong.

No obstante, se puede asegurar, que el Hong Quan yace representado estructuralmente por tres importantes creaciones:

  • Boxeo de la doma del tigre con el carácter Gong (Gong Zi Fu Hu Quan, 工字伏虎拳)
  • Boxeo de tigre y grulla (Hu He Shuang Xin Quan, 虎鶴雙形拳).
  • Boxeo del cable de acero (Tie Xian Quan, 鐵線拳).

Aquí no solo se patentiza la movilidad del estilo y los trabajos intensos de ejercitación muscular, sino que además se potencializa el método de los diez animales, en conjunción con los métodos de brazos largos del sistema Luo Han Quan, las técnicas de palmas del estilo Cai Jia Quan (boxeo de la familia Cai, 蔡家拳) y algunas estrategias de la corriente Liu Jia Quan (boxeo de la familia Liu, 劉家拳). Este nuevo repertorio le confiere al sistema un nuevo alcance estratégico y un desplazamiento capaz de abarcar un mayor rango de ángulos de ataque y defensa.

LOS DIEZ ANIMALES DEL HONG QUAN

虎﹐豹﹐鶴﹐蛇﹐龍

馬﹐猴﹐獅﹐象﹐雞

Tigre, Leopardo, Grulla, Serpiente, Dragón, Caballo, Mono, León, Elefante y Gallo.

Aunque esta clasificación responde a la síntesis realizada por el maestro Wong Fei Hong, antes de que el sistema llegara a sus manos, el Hong Quan contaba con formas poco conocidas y que han sido mantenidas en manos de un círculo selecto de maestros, como lo son: Zhuang Da Quan (boxeo de impacto penetrante, 撞打拳), Qian Zi Quan (boxeo del puño de los mil caracteres, 千字拳), Hei Hu Quan (boxeo del tigre negro, 黑虎拳), Tie Gong San Jie Quan (boxeo de hierro de las tres intercepciones, 鐵功三截拳), Er Long Zheng Zhu Quan, (boxeo de los dragones que luchan por la perla, 二龍争珠拳), Ba Gua Hong Quan (boxeo de ocho direcciones de la familia Hong, 八卦洪拳), Luo Han Quan (boxeo del Luohan, 羅漢拳), entre otras.

Sifu Huang Jun Wu (黄俊武), hijo menor del maestro Wong Yi Man, ejecutando una técnica del estilo Hong Quan.

Durante el período donde fueron diseñados estos Taolu (formas clásicas del estilo, 套路), el Hong Quan mantuvo los aspectos que definían su movilidad, los cuales pueden resumirse en nueve pilares:

  • Posturas enraizadas y desplazamientos sólidos (Ma Bu Wen Jian, 马步稳健)
  • Posiciones altas y pasos vigorosos (Gao Ma Kuai Bu, 高马快步)
  • Puentes compactos y técnicas impetuosas (Li Meng Qiao Chen, 力猛桥沉)
  • Formas imponentes y fuerza penetrante (Xing Wei Shi Lie, 形威势烈)
  • Movimientos enérgicos y firmes (Jin Li Wen Jian, 劲力稳健)
  • Guardias cerradas y maniobras de ataque y defensa a corta distancia (Tie Shen Jin Da, 贴身近打)
  • Intercepciones y enlaces circulares (Huan Huan Jin Bi, 环环进逼)
  • Defensa sobre la línea central (Tião Bi Hu Zhong, 挑臂护中)
  • Acompañar al oponente manteniendo la distancia (Jin Jin Xiang Sui, 紧紧相随)

No obstante, desde finales del siglo XIX e inicios del XX, se introdujeron cambios importantes en su dinámica. Dentro de las transformaciones –que han influenciado la práctica del Hong Quan moderno-, encontramos el uso flexible de las técnicas de largo alcance y el énfasis en posturas bajas y extendidas. Por supuesto, en una de las formas donde más se ejemplifican estos aportes es en el boxeo del tigre y la grulla. Esto lo convierte, en un punto de transición y convergencia del Hong Quan de los cinco tigres y el gestado dentro del núcleo familiar del maestro Wong Fei Hong.

Por último, es importante destacar,  que el  boxeo del tigre y la grulla se mueve en ocho direcciones y dirige su intención en cinco puntos. A esto se le llama Ba Gua Mian (los ocho aspectos de las ocho imágenes, 八卦麵) y Wu Men Fa (el método de las cinco puertas, 五門法), dejando cifrado su contenido marcial en doce caracteres (Shi Er Zi Fa, 十二字法).

Los doce caracteres del Hong Quan

Es necesario enfatizar que el dominio fidedigno de este impresionante sistema de combate, no está determinado por la cantidad de formas que se ejercitan, sino por el conocimiento de sus preceptos tácticos. Por esto, es importante prestar especial atención al desplazamiento, al uso adecuado de la suavidad y la dureza, así como a las direcciones de defensa y ataque.

En este punto,  encuentro importante,  desmitificar la falsa visión con que suele asumirse la ejecución del Hong Quan. Hoy en día, muchos maestros han totalizado una imagen incorrecta de su uso marcial. O sea, le han ofrecido preponderancia a un tono corporal de extrema tensión muscular, encapsulando el método de combate en una dinámica obsoleta.

Si bien es cierto, que el Hong Quan incorporó muchos entrenamientos de Wai Gong, no se puede confundir  los requisitos que se necesitan en un tiempo de fortificación, con el tono verdadero que debe imprimírsele a la técnica.

Si hurgamos dentro de los doce caracteres del Hong Quan, veremos que uno de los conceptos que se revelan a la mirada inquisidora, subyace en el pleno dominio de Gan (duro, 剛) y Rou (blando, 柔). Estos dos emblemas del movimiento –los cuales consolidan la base de cualquier sistema de combate real-, esconden el genuino método para la canalización del Qi.

Incluso si analizamos la estructura del cable de hierro, nos cercioraremos –si tenemos una sólida base conceptual-, que el objetivo es ante todo crear dureza dentro de la suavidad. Precisamente el nombre del sistema habla por sí mismo. Un cable no es un lingote de acero, es un elemento flexible que puede recogerse y extenderse con suma ligereza. Teóricamente, muchos preceptores dialogan y enfatizan sobre este tema, pero cuando se observa con detenimiento como lo expresan, se percibe con inmediatez la fractura que existe entre lo que pregonan y lo que hacen con el cuerpo.

Esta es una de las tristes realidades del arte marcial de nuestros tiempos. Se construyen grandes legados doctrinales, pero no se logran difundir sus auténticas connotaciones. Por ende, los sistemas degeneran y en muchos casos pierden su efectividad aplicativa.

El secreto de la emisión del Qi yace relacionado con el uso de los tendones, ¿no son estos –a propósito del tema-, cables anatómicos que enlazan y permiten exteriorizar el poder de los músculos?

Solo puede existir potencial técnico cuando el movimiento nace de la relajación. Ahora bien, justo en el instante del impacto se produce una tensión que permite movilizar y extender el flujo del Qi. Para que esto acontezca con deliberado dominio, debe coexistir una estrecha unidad entre el desplazamiento, la respiración y el uso de la cintura.

Es obvio que si se ignoran estos principios, se anula la capacidad de comprender como efectuar una técnica profunda. Gan y Rou son manifestaciones de Yin y Yang. Yin solo no puede crear el universo y viceversa. El Taiji se manifiesta cuando existe mutación y flujo de los contrastes.

La no comprensión de este argumento filosófico, priva al ejecutante de saber cómo emplear la suavidad y la dureza. La polarización crea inhibición y conflicto. ¿Lograron los maestros de Hong Quan desenvolver su arte –en el período de las conjuras contra la dinastía manchú-, realizando una dinámica basada en la contracción física? No se puede confundir entrenamiento muscular con tono de combate.  El problema actual radica en que hasta las secuencias que deberían realizarse con soltura se comprometen en una absurda cadencia de contracciones.

El Hong Quan es un método de combate fluido, capaz de ofrecer una respuesta inmediata. Si no se dominan sus recursos internos y se transmiten sus auténticas esencias el arte degenera.  El hecho de que  muchos estudiantes estén dispuestos a imitar lo que tantas veces se les ha enseñado, no significa que pisen el sendero de la verdad. Como en todos los tiempos, las cosas fidedignas crecen a la sombra de lo que se le muestra al público. Hay que escarbar por debajo de lo que se vislumbra, y saber insertar los restos de una cultura soterrada. Esta es la base para una comprensión verdadera.

 

 

 

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