LA DANZA DEL LEÓN Y LAS TRADICIONES DEL WUSHU

LAS RAÍCES FOLCLÓRICAS DEL WUSHU DEL SUR DE CHINA

Artículo escrito por el Sifu Tony Rey García

(2012)

Como un logotipo cultural la Danza del León (Zhong Guo Shi Wu, 中国狮舞)  ha transcendido los más diversos contextos geográficos. Sus exóticas gestualidades y el misterio que tanto atrae a la mentalidad occidental le confieren un intenso magnetismo.

Es bien sabido por el público amante de las artes marciales, que esta danza totémica cuenta con una historia legendaria que la remonta a las postrimerías de la dinastía Tang (618-907 d.C., 唐朝) o incluso a períodos anteriores.

Ahora bien, no creo –como tanto se ha expuesto en otros textos escritos sobre el tema-, que lo trascendental consista en enfatizar las historias que se tejen sobre su surgimiento dentro de los anales de la fantasía colectiva. Tanto la leyenda del león que asalta a una aldea (lo cual es inverosímil en un país que no contaba dentro de su fauna endémica con esa especie), como la del sueño del emperador (la que solo tendría sentido si asumiéramos que el gobernante quedó impresionado ante la imagen real de un felino), son solo alusiones a idealidades que sobrepasan los contornos de la realidad objetiva.

Si hurgamos dentro de los escritos, constataremos como ya en plena dinastía Tang la apertura cultural del imperio chino se extendía a más de 70 países. Las rutas marítimas y terrestres constituían una vía de intercambio religioso y financiero. Las ciudades del sur ofrecían sus puertos al comercio internacional y los productos llegaban procedentes de Persia, Asia Meridional, Japón e incluso del Imperio Romano. En este panorama, no solo penetraron las costumbres y las religiones extranjeras, como fue el caso del islamismo o de la secta nestoriana, sino que también arribaron todas las curiosidades que la imaginación humana pudiese convertir en ganancias económicas.

Miembros de la Academia del maestro Wong Yi Man durante las celebraciones realizadas por el año nuevo lunar.

Entre los siglos XII Y XIII las flotas chinas alcanzaron el sudeste asiático, las costas del Índico, Arabia y los bordes del continente africano. Los puertos de Fujiang (涪江), Zhejiang (浙江) y Guangdong (廣東) llegaron a superar incluso el flujo marítimo de los muelles europeos.

Con las grandes expediciones realizadas por Zheng He (1371-1433, 鄭和), se amplificó la interacción cultural en una extensa faja terrestre. Este célebre navegante accedió a las costas de Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, Malaca, Ceilán, Calicut (costa occidental de la India del sur) y Ormuz, alcanzando en un largo itinerario las costas de África. Más tarde, entre 1431-1422 sus flotas se orientaron hacia Palembang (sureste de Sumatra), Calcuta y el puerto de la Meca. Sus éxitos navieros le otorgaron un gran prestigio al imperio, despertando la curiosidad de muchos países y el deseo de establecer relaciones permanentes con China.

En este heterogéneo intercambio mundial, la introducción de animales exóticos –dentro de la corte china-, debe haber constituido una muestra fehaciente de la biodiversidad de los países bárbaros. ¿Acaso la flota de Zheng He no transportó a las sombras del imperio todo lo que pudiese despertar la admiración y la curiosidad de sus patrocinadores aristocráticos?

El León devora las ofrendas frente al altar de Guan Yu.

Si alguna vez un monarca chino fue influenciado oníricamente con la imagen de un león, debe haber sido tras emplear parte de sus horas de vigilia en vislumbrar sus impresionantes rasgos, los cuales poseerían –sin lugar a dudas-,  las características que definen a los seres mitológicos.

Por supuesto, para convertir su vivencia en culto tendría entonces que recrear la manifestación de su efigie, así como de sus cualidades intrínsecas. ¿Qué mejor modo de hacerlo que construyendo una copia alegórica con la cual los hombres pudiesen incorporar y representar sus atributos? ¿No son las danzas sagradas expresiones de las ideologías religiosas?

Con el advenimiento de la dinastía Qing (1644-1911 d.C., 清朝), y las conjuras de la corte de los Ming (1368- 1644, 明朝), las artes marciales fueron prohibidas. Algunos preceptores de renombre establecieron sus transmisiones dentro del núcleo de las sociedades secretas y otros introdujeron sus estilos dentro de los códigos gestuales del Teatro y de la Ópera.

En estas controvertidas y difíciles circunstancias, la danza del león se transformó en un vehículo ideal para fomentar las rebeliones internas, así como un medio de comunicación entre los integrantes de las cofradías marciales. Por ser la región del sur de China el centro de repliegue de los aristócratas y sobrevivientes de la ocupación mongola en el norte del país, su práctica se afianzó en la región de Fujiang y Guandong.

El León envuelto en los efluvios de los petardos chinos durante un ritual de excorsismo.

Se pueden definir –dentro de los talleres de confección de las localidades sureñas-, dos modelos estructurales que le otorgan al diseño del león categorizaciones específicas:

  • He Shan Shi (león de la montaña de la grulla, 鹤山獅).
  • Fu Shan Shi (león de la montaña de buda, 佛山獅).

Dentro de esta clasificación sobresaltan los diversos tipos de cabezas de león que asumen preponderancia dentro de las escuelas de artes marciales:

  • Yan Zui Shi (león con boca de pato, 鸭嘴狮).
  • Qi Lin Shi (león con rasgos de unicornio, 麒麟狮).
  • Gong Ji Shi (león con cresta de gallo, 公鸡狮).
  • Fu Shan De Da Tou Shi (león de cabeza grande de la región de Foshan, 佛山的大头狮).

Asociado al culto de algunas divinidades los leones se sincretizaron con tres guerreros históricos:

  • Guan Yu (關羽).
  • Liu Bei (劉備).
  • Zhang Fei (張飛).

Estos tres personajes de renombre –que ocuparon méritos relevantes durante el período de los Tres Reinos (220-280, 三國時代)-, fueron un símbolo de las artes militares y más tarde alcanzaron un pedestal dentro del panteón de los dioses gubernamentales.

Dentro de la tradición de la danza del león se les asignan a los tres héroes las tonalidades que delinean sus cualidades rememorativas:

  • Hong Mian Shi (león de faz roja y barba negra, 红麵狮). El color rojo se asocia con el general Guan Yu.  Representa la lealtad, el valor y la persistencia por defender un ideal determinado. Guan Yu personifica además, la intención inquebrantable, el dominio marcial y la mesurada comprensión de la estrategia militar.
  • Huang Mian Shi (león de faz amarilla y barba blanca, 黄麵狮). El color amarillo simboliza la sabiduría, el equilibrio y la mesura en las decisiones. Liu Bei se manifiesta en este contraste de tonalidades. Este es junto al león rojo el más utilizado dentro de las escuelas de Wushu en las celebraciones y eventos. Es evidente que si se quiere otorgar dones a la muchedumbre que asiste o a los invitados especiales se busquen las mejores combinaciones arquetípicas. Los leones rojos y amarillos ofrecen una extraordinaria combinación de elevados atributos.
  • Hei Mian Shi (león de faz y barba negra, 黑麵狮). El color negro muestra las características de Zhang Fei (famoso por su coraje y arrojo combativo). Por esto fue conocido como el león de la guerra. Su presencia en una festividad –en los tiempos antiguos-, implicaba un abierto desafío para los miembros de las otras cofradías.

Con el paso del tiempo, el león fue adoptando otros artificios simbólicos como el espejo que se coloca sobre su cabeza, con el objetivo de repeler las influencias negativas.

Los miembros de la Academia del maestro Wong Yi Man levantan al León sobre la estaca de madera.

Ensamblado dentro de las visiones de una cultura milenaria, el león posee una serie de pasos constitutivos que le otorgan su veracidad religiosa. El peldaño inicial que da acceso a la ceremonia de inicio se denomina: Kai Guang Dian Jing (abriendo la luz en los ojos, 開光点睛). En este acto se necesita la presencia de algún sacerdote taoísta o del maestro de la escuela, para esparcir o dibujar con un pincel -tras los ofrecimientos que se realizan en el altar de Guan Yu- el polvo de cinabrio rojo (Zhu Sha, 硃砂) sobre las pupilas del león. Con esta acción se pretende atraer el Qi (energía) a la faz del animal, permitiéndole exteriorizar la fuerza de su espíritu. En esta ritualidad totémica se conjugan algunos aspectos del chamanismo ancestral.

Así se entreabren las diversas celebraciones o asistencias que puede ofrecer el león (Nan Shi De Li Yi, 南狮的礼仪) las cuales se pueden subdividir –según lo exijan las circunstancias-,  en seis niveles de realización:

  • Ying Bin Dian Li (ceremonia para darle la bienvenida a los invitados, 迎宾典礼).
  • Kai Zhang Zhi Qing (ceremonia de recordación de una fecha memorable, 开张志庆).
  • Jia Ju Qiao Gan (ceremonia para hacer que la familia mejore sus condiciones de vida, 家居乔迀).
  • He Fu Zhu Shou (ceremonia para felicitar y desear la suerte durante un cumpleaños, 贺福祝寿).
  • Ying Qin Xi Nao (ceremonia de celebración durante un casamiento, 迎亲喜闹).
  • Chu Bin Song Zang (ceremonia durante el entierro de un difunto, 迎亲喜闹).

Tres instrumentos musicales le confieren – a los movimientos de los danzantes-, el tono, la cadencia, la expresión y la conexión con las fuerzas celestes:

  • Gu (tambor, 鼓).
  • Bo (címbalo o platillos, 钹).
  • Luo (conocido como gong, 锣).

Los tambores invocan el poder de las constelaciones, por eso suelen adoptar diversas combinaciones de ritmos. Esta variación melódica se acopla al desplazamiento de los ejecutantes y al estilo que profesa la escuela.

Se pueden definir tres composiciones preponderantes:

  • San Xing Gu (toque de tambor de las tres estrellas, 三星鼓).
  • Wu Xing Gu (toque de tambor de las cinco estrellas, 五星鼓).
  • Qi Xing Gu (toque de tambor de las siete estrellas, 七星鼓).

Es sabido que desde la antigua dinastía Xin (9-23 d.C., 新朝), las prácticas espiritistas estaban en boga. Los rituales se realzaban a toque de tambor como un elemento determinante en el descenso de las fuerzas celestes. Los pasos zigzagueaban en la tierra en alusión a los desplazamientos sagrados que el mítico emperador Yu el grande (2200 – 2100 a.C., 大禹) ejecutó para detener las inundaciones y restaurar el equilibrio del mundo. Más tarde, estas maniobras penetrarían dentro de las tradiciones exorcistas del taoísmo religioso conjugadas con las creencias populares.

En estos contextos se potencializaron las prácticas de Yao Shu (técnicas para hacer descender un espíritu o exorcizar a una persona contra los demonios, 妖術). Los Wu Shi (hechiceros, 巫师) captaban la personalidad del dios o de la entidad encarnada y transmitían su mensaje en un estado de trance. Las danzas y los toques de tambor eran recursos para invocar a una divinidad y hacer que se posesionara del cuerpo. También existían ceremonias para que el alma del brujo estableciera contacto con los Xian Ren (seres celestiales, 仙人) mediante los Zhou Yu (conjuros, 咒语). Estos métodos pasaron a formar parte de los ritos guerreros. Muchas de las sublevaciones religiosas emplearon el espiritismo como vía de protección física contra las eventualidades de la guerra. Los integrantes de la rebelión de los bóxers lo llamaban Jiang Shen Fu Ti (los espíritus que bajan y penetran en el cuerpo, 降神附体).

El León danza sobre la pértiga de madera.

Dentro de la danza del león también se fusionaron muchos elementos devenidos de los antiguos ritos lunares o de las tradiciones agrarias que se llevaban a cabo en épocas determinadas del calendario. Muchas de las escuelas ancladas en áreas rurales se permearon de los hábitos locales, así como de los  diversos elementos que cotidianamente utilizaban como anexos dentro de la ejecución de las maniobras del león.

Existen dos formas de exteriorizar esta danza y la habilidad de sus ejecutantes:

  • Gao Shi (el león de las alturas, 高狮).
  • Di Shi (el león de la tierra, 地狮).

La primera conlleva todos los requisitos materiales que posibilitan escalar diversas estructuras. Dentro de las más conocidas se definen seis modalidades:

  • Deng Shi (el león de la banqueta, 凳狮).
  • Tai Shi (el león de la gran torre, 臺狮).
  • Gan Shi (el león de la pértiga, 竿狮).
  • Zhuang Shi (el león de la estaca, 桩狮).
  • Pa Ti (el león que trepa en la escalera, 爬梯).
  • Shang Lou Ti (el león que asciende a la terraza de un edificio, 上楼台).

Mientras que la segunda está condicionada por la creatividad de los que piden audiencia, así como de las costumbres de la zona donde acontece el ritual. Se pueden establecer algunos modelos preponderantes:

  • Ye Zi Qing (el león se traga el coco y lo escupe como una señal, 椰子青).
  • Pen Qing (el león danza con el cuenco de agua,  盆青).
  • Xie Qing (el león devora el cangrejo, 蟹青).
  • Zhong Zhe Qing (el león escala las grandes banquetas, 中阵青).

Otro requisito imprescindible para atraer la buena suerte y la prosperidad consiste en ofrecerle al león los Hong Bao (los sobres rojos con dinero, 红包). Según algunas tradiciones populares, antiguamente las monedas chinas –las cuales poseían un agujero en el centro-, eran ensartadas con un cordón de seda. A esto se le llamaba Ya Sui Qian (dinero para controlar a los malos espíritus, 壓嵗錢). Esta ofrenda simbólica era entregaba en las festividades por el año nuevo lunar a los familiares y allegados como signo de protección y fortuna. Con el paso del tiempo fue sustituido su uso por la costumbre de intercambiar los regalos monetarios dentro de sobres rojos.

El Hong Bao es colocado a menudo desde la puerta de entrada de un negocio, de una tienda o de un banco con mandarinas encima, (Xiao Gan Ju, 小柑橘). Alineados en el suelo hasta el altar de Guan Yu sirven de alimento al león, el cual va devorando los sobres mientras ejecuta los pasos de exorcismo. Esto es una manera de augurar que durante el año que comienza prosperen las condiciones económicas y sean aisladas las malas influencias. A menudo el león ofrece un mensaje tras abrir su boca y dejar caer una estera con caracteres de bienaventuranza. Este acontecimiento se acompaña de intensas explosiones de fuegos artificiales los cuales despejan del lugar de todas las fuerzas malignas.

En otras ocasiones se le ofrece un mazo de lechuga (como símbolo de regeneración y buena suerte) que cuelga de un hilo con los sobres rojos ensartados en línea. Los miembros de la escuela levantan al ejecutante de la cabeza sobre una pértiga para que dance en las alturas al toque del tambor. En esta vistosa escena, el león escupe sobre todos los presentes las hojas de la hortaliza como una lluvia de amparo y bendición.

Los Leones inician la ceremonia a toque de tambor.

Dentro de estas costumbres, muchos conjurados en la época de la dinastía Qing solían gritar Cai Qing (capturar a los Qing, 採清), frase que pronunciada con celeridad podía ser confundida con Cai Qian (agarrar el dinero que cuelga en los sobres rojos, 採錢). Aquí se evidencian los signos de la resistencia política dentro del núcleo de las sociedades secretas y las claves lingüísticas que se utilizaban para lanzar las propagandas ideológicas. Igualmente, muchas de las formas clásicas del Wushu sufrieron arreglos que las convertían en un lenguaje corporal solamente accesible a los conocedores de los códigos gestuales. Los danzantes estaban aparentemente mostrando las técnicas de un estilo, pero al mismo tiempo intercambiaban información entre las escuelas.

Como algunos sistemas de combate fueron a parar a los escenarios del teatro o en los conjuntos de la Ópera, las historias artísticas de Guan Yu se combinaron dentro de la danza del león como apertura de la ceremonia. En otros casos, el tridente (al cual se le enlazan lazos rojos y se le cuelga incienso cerca de sus tres puntas, 大扒) cierra la actividad como señal de auspicio de las fuerzas celestes y telúricas.

En algunas apartadas regiones del sur de China se cuelga un coco desde la segunda planta de una casa en ofrecimiento al león. El danzante que opera en la cabeza debe ser levantado desde el suelo por todos los miembros de su escuela. En las alturas, el león devora los sobres rojos que se le obsequian y al final de la ceremonia se come el coco para vomitar –tras una larga cadencia de gestualidades-, su semilla. Al caer sobre el suelo, ésta se convierte en un oráculo para todos los presentes, según sean las posiciones en que hayan quedado las partes carmelitas y blancas que la componen.

La mandarina como símbolo de prosperidad y el espejo del bagua como emblema de protección contra las influencias malignas.

Otra costumbre típica de las regiones campesinas, consiste en exorcizar un viejo Hutong (antiguos poblados construidos durante las dinastías Ming y  Qing, 衚衕). Los integrantes de una academia de Wushu realizan una procesión por las angostas callejuelas bajo la supervisión del maestro. Frente a las puertas de las casas se queman las ofrendas y se liberan los ensordeceros sonidos de los petardos festivos. El león transita por todos los recovecos y las añosas esquinas como un animal de augurios celestes.

No solo se exorcizan los habitáculos y las lápidas donde se asientan los dioses lugareños, sino también los medios de transporte e incluso los efluvios emanados del altar donde descansan las tablillas de los ancestros. Más tarde, reunidos ante el portón del templo principal, los aldeanos asisten a la exhibición de artes marciales que realizan a toque de tambor todos los adeptos de la asociación que los asiste.

La danza del león recoge dentro de sus pasos muchos de los desplazamientos del Wushu y de sus posturas de ataque y defensa. Por lo tanto, es necesario dominar el Ji Ben Gong (método de entrenamiento básico, 基本功) si se quiere acceder a su pleno dominio.

La primera parte consiste en comprender la ubicación de las piernas (Bu Xing, 步型). Dentro de este ciclo el alumno accede al conocimiento de siete fases posturales:

  • Ma Bu (postura de caballo, 馬步).
  • Gong Bu (postura de arco y flecha, 马步).
  • Xu Bu (postura de paso vacío, 虚步).
  • Pu Bu (postura del sirviente, 仆步).
  • Du Li Bu (postura de pie suspendido, 獨立步).
  • Gui Bu (paso arrodillado, 跪步).
  • Guai Bu (paso cruzado, 拐步).

Mientras que la segunda parte yace compuesta por los métodos de desplazamiento (Bu Fa, 步法):

  • Cha Bu (interconexiones de pasos cruzados, 揷步).
  • Tiao Bu (desplazamientos combinados con pequeños saltos, 跳步).
  • Kai He Bu (movimientos de apertura y cierre desde postura de caballo, 開合步).
  • Qi Lin Bu (pasos del unicornio, 麒麟步).
  • Da Liang Yi Bu (postura de los grandes movimientos laterales, 大两移步).
  • Tan Bu (postura que explora con el pie, 探步).
  • Xiao Pao Bu (los pequeños saltos que evaden hacia atrás, 小跑步).

La danza del león posee una serie de movimientos que pueden variar según el contexto geográfico o los antecedentes marciales que la representan. No obstante, dentro de las más conocidas se encuentran las siguientes combinaciones:

  • Zuo Di Shui Shi (el león duerme echado sobre la tierra, 坐地睡狮).
  • Zuo Di Zhang Wang (el león echado mira a lo lejos, 坐地张望).
  • Zuo Di Ca Yan (el león se frota los ojos, 坐地擦眼).
  • Zuo Di Luo Xu (el león se acaricia la barba, 坐地捋须).
  • Yao Tou Shi (el león agita la cabeza, 摇头狮).
  • Xun Lu Shi (el león busca el camino, 寻路狮).
  • Xun Zhao Shi Wu (el león busca alimento, 寻找食物).
  • Qiao Tan Cai Qing (el león se adentra en la floresta, 巧探采青).
  • Gong Bu Nong Qing (el león juega con la hierba, 马步弄青).
  • Kai Huai Shi Qing (el león se alegra con la comida, 開怀食青).
  • Gong Bu Tun Qing (el león devora la hierba, 马步吞青).
  • Gong Bu Tu Qing (el león escupe la hierba, 马步吐青).
  • Shi Zi Zhui Wei (el pequeño león persigue su cola, 狮子追尾).
  • San Bai Shi (el león ofrece tres reverencias, 三拜狮).
  • Shi Zi Gui Dong (el pequeño león retorna a la cueva, 狮子归洞).

Este conjunto de mimetismos anatómicos posee una estrecha sincronía con los fundamentos del arte marcial. Desde la manipulación de los resortes internos que permiten mover la boca y los ojos del león, hasta su dinámico flujo de acciones, conforman un excelente medio de entrenamiento para todos aquellos que se adentran en el maravilloso mundo de las artes marciales chinas.

Los Leones escudriñan el Guan Dao (sable con pértiga del general Guan Yu, 關刀).

Existen representaciones de algunas historias mitológicas dentro de la coreografía general. Es este el caso del buda de la cabeza grande (Da Tou Fu, 大头佛), un personaje que logra controlar los impulsos del antojadizo animal con la inocencia y pureza de su espíritu.

Con respecto al León como emblema marcial, su imagen se ha transformado en un logotipo de reconocimiento estatal. Las grandes Academias de Wushu muestran su poder adquisitivo y su reputación oficial por medio de una exhuberante danza de Leones que puede alcanzar el número de ocho, diez y doce ejemplares. Incluso se confeccionan en miniatura para que los niños puedan maniobrarlos adecuadamente. Toda esta ostentosa manifestación folclórica yace edificada sobre el concepto de Mianzi (dignidad y prestigio social, 麵子).

El Mianzi de un maestro está respaldado por su historia personal, su calidad como preceptor, su dominio técnico, su aporte al desarrollo y la evolución del arte marcial, el árbol genealógico de los ancestros que enraizan su conocimiento, así como los resultados en la transmisión del Wushu fuera del continente chino. Los prosélitos que edifican una Academia soportan los cimientos que aseguran su aceptación y apoyo gubernamental.

Sin lugar a dudas, la danza del león concentra un hermoso legado cultural y una extraordinaria síntesis de tradiciones. Por lo que su práctica no solo define la profundidad de inserción de una escuela dentro de las viejas costumbres, sino su cualidad de mantener los rasgos más genuinos del patrimonio nacional.

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